Cirkonij

40
Zr
Skupina
4
Perioda
5
Blok
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
40
40
51
General Properties
Vrstno število
40
Atomska teža
91,224
Mass Number
91
Kategorija
Prehodne kovine
Barva
Silver
Radioactive
Ne
From the Persian zargun, gold like
Kristalna struktura
Heksagonalna
Zgodovina
Zirconium was first recognized as an element by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789, in Berlin, in a sample of zircon from Sri Lanka.

Zirconium metal was first obtained in an impure form in 1824 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in an iron tube.

Dutch scientists Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered a method for producing high purity zirconium in 1925.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Razporeditev elektronov
[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Zr
The most common oxide is zirconium dioxide, also referred to as zirconia
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
6,506 g/cm3
Tališče
2128,15 K | 1855 °C | 3371 °F
Vrelišče
4682,15 K | 4409 °C | 7968,2 °F
Talilna toplota
21 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
580 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
0,278 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,013%
Abundance in Universe
5×10-6%
Two
Zasluge za slike: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Two samples of crystal bar showing different surface textures as well as a highly pure zirconium cube for comparison
CAS Number
7440-67-7
PubChem CID Number
23995
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
160 pm
Kovalentni polmer
175 pm
Elektronegativnost
1,33 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
6,6339 eV
Atomic Volume
14,0 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
0,227 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although it is used in small amounts as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion.

Zirconium is used as to make surgical instruments and is used in steel alloys as a hardening agent.

Zirconium is also used to make superconductive magnets.
Zirconium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 94Zr
Unstable Isotopes
78Zr, 79Zr, 80Zr, 81Zr, 82Zr, 83Zr, 84Zr, 85Zr, 86Zr, 87Zr, 88Zr, 89Zr, 93Zr, 95Zr, 96Zr, 97Zr, 98Zr, 99Zr, 100Zr, 101Zr, 102Zr, 103Zr, 104Zr, 105Zr, 106Zr, 107Zr, 108Zr, 109Zr, 110Zr