Galij

31
Ga
Skupina
13
Perioda
4
Blok
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
31
31
39
General Properties
Vrstno število
31
Atomska teža
69,723
Mass Number
70
Kategorija
Šibke kovine
Barva
Silver
Radioactive
Ne
From the Latin word Gallia, France; also from Latin, gallus, a translation of Lecoq, a cock
Kristalna struktura
Osnovno centrirana ortorombska
Zgodovina
In 1871, existence of gallium was first predicted by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev and called the element eka-aluminum.

Gallium was discovered spectroscopically by French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875 by its characteristic spectrum in an examination of a sphalerite sample.

Later that year, Lecoq obtained the free metal by electrolysis of its hydroxide in potassium hydroxide solution.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 3
Razporeditev elektronov
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Ga
Gallium has a strong tendency to supercool below its melting point / freezing point
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
5,907 g/cm3
Tališče
302,91 K | 29,76 °C | 85,57 °F
Vrelišče
2477,15 K | 2204 °C | 3999,2 °F
Talilna toplota
5,59 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
256 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
0,371 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0019%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-6%
Crystals
Zasluge za slike: Wikimedia Commons (Foobar)
Crystals of gallium
CAS Number
7440-55-3
PubChem CID Number
5360835
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
135 pm
Kovalentni polmer
122 pm
Elektronegativnost
1,81 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
5,9993 eV
Atomic Volume
11,8 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
0,406 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
1, 2, 3
Applications
Gallium wets glass or porcelain and forms a brilliant mirror when it is painted on glass.

It is widely used in doping semiconductors and producing solid-state devices such as transistors.

Low melting gallium alloys are used in some medical thermometers as non-toxic substitutes for mercury.

Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light.
Gallium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
69Ga, 71Ga
Unstable Isotopes
56Ga, 57Ga, 58Ga, 59Ga, 60Ga, 61Ga, 62Ga, 63Ga, 64Ga, 65Ga, 66Ga, 67Ga, 68Ga, 70Ga, 72Ga, 73Ga, 74Ga, 75Ga, 76Ga, 77Ga, 78Ga, 79Ga, 80Ga, 81Ga, 82Ga, 83Ga, 84Ga, 85Ga, 86Ga