Germanij

32
Ge
Skupina
14
Perioda
4
Blok
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
32
32
41
General Properties
Vrstno število
32
Atomska teža
72,63
Mass Number
73
Kategorija
Polkovine
Barva
Gray
Radioactive
Ne
From the Latin word Germania, Germany
Kristalna struktura
Ploskovno centrirana kubična
Zgodovina
In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties based on its position on his periodic table and called the element eka-silicon.

In 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite.

The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 4
Razporeditev elektronov
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Ge
Germanium and the oxide are transparent to infrared radiation
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
5,323 g/cm3
Tališče
1211,4 K | 938,25 °C | 1720,85 °F
Vrelišče
3106,15 K | 2833 °C | 5131,4 °F
Talilna toplota
31,8 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
334 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
0,32 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00014%
Abundance in Universe
0,00002%
Ultrapure
Zasluge za slike: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure chunk of polycrystalline germanium
CAS Number
7440-56-4
PubChem CID Number
6326954
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
122 pm
Kovalentni polmer
122 pm
Elektronegativnost
2,01 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
7,8994 eV
Atomic Volume
13,6 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
0,599 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
-4, 1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor in electronics.

Germanium is used in transistors and in integrated circuits.

It is used as an alloying agent and as a catalyst.

It is also used in infrared spectroscopes and infrared detectors.
Germanium is not known to be toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge
Unstable Isotopes
58Ge, 59Ge, 60Ge, 61Ge, 62Ge, 63Ge, 64Ge, 65Ge, 66Ge, 67Ge, 68Ge, 69Ge, 71Ge, 75Ge, 76Ge, 77Ge, 78Ge, 79Ge, 80Ge, 81Ge, 82Ge, 83Ge, 84Ge, 85Ge, 86Ge, 87Ge, 88Ge, 89Ge