Fosfor

15
P
Skupina
15
Perioda
3
Blok
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
15
15
16
General Properties
Vrstno število
15
Atomska teža
30,973762
Mass Number
31
Kategorija
Druge nekovine
Barva
Brezbarven
Radioactive
Ne
From the Greek phosphoros, light bearing; ancient name for the planet Venus when appearing before sunrise
Kristalna struktura
Triklinska
Zgodovina
Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669, in Hamburg, Germany, preparing it from urine.

In 1769, Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate is found in bones, and they obtained elemental phosphorus from bone ash.

Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 5
Razporeditev elektronov
[Ne] 3s2 3p3
P
Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
1,82 g/cm3
Tališče
317,25 K | 44,1 °C | 111,38 °F
Vrelišče
553 K | 279,85 °C | 535,73 °F
Talilna toplota
0,64 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
12,4 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
0,769 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,099%
Abundance in Universe
0,0007%
Red
Zasluge za slike: Images-of-elements
Red phosphorus as powder
CAS Number
7723-14-0
PubChem CID Number
5462309
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
98 pm
Kovalentni polmer
107 pm
Elektronegativnost
2,19 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
10,4867 eV
Atomic Volume
17,0 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
0,00235 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Applications
Many fertilisers contain a high proportion of phosphorus and are manufactured from concentrated phosphoric acids.

Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics and incendiary shells.

Phosphorus is also used in steel manufacture and in the production of phosphor bronze.
White phosphorus is highly toxic while red phosphorus is considered non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
31P
Unstable Isotopes
24P, 25P, 26P, 27P, 28P, 29P, 30P, 32P, 33P, 34P, 35P, 36P, 37P, 38P, 39P, 40P, 41P, 42P, 43P, 44P, 45P, 46P