Silicij

14
Si
Skupina
14
Perioda
3
Blok
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
14
14
14
General Properties
Vrstno število
14
Atomska teža
28,0855
Mass Number
28
Kategorija
Polkovine
Barva
Gray
Radioactive
Ne
From the Latin word silex, silicis, flint
Kristalna struktura
Tetrahedral Packing
Zgodovina
In 1800, Sir Humphry Davy thought silica to be a compound and not an element; but in 1811, Gay Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard probably prepared impure amorphous silicon by heating potassium with silicon tetrafluoride.

In 1824 Jöns Jakob Berzelius prepared amorphous silicon by the same general method.

Henri Deville in 1854 first prepared crystalline silicon, the second allotropic form of the element.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 4
Razporeditev elektronov
[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Si
Silicon also has the unusual property that it expands as it freezes
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
2,3296 g/cm3
Tališče
1687,15 K | 1414 °C | 2577,2 °F
Vrelišče
3538,15 K | 3265 °C | 5909 °F
Talilna toplota
50,2 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
359 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
0,705 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
27%
Abundance in Universe
0,07%
Close
Zasluge za slike: Wikimedia Commons (Enricoros)
Close up photo of a piece of purified silicon
CAS Number
7440-21-3
PubChem CID Number
5461123
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
111 pm
Kovalentni polmer
111 pm
Elektronegativnost
1,9 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
8,1517 eV
Atomic Volume
12,1 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
1,48 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
In the form of sand and clay it is used to make concrete and brick; it is a useful refractory material for high-temperature work, and in the form of silicates it is used in making enamels, pottery, etc.

Silica, as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass.

Silicon chips are the basis of modern electronic and computing.

Silicon carbide, more commonly called carborundum is used in abrasives.
If breathed in as a fine silica/silicate dust, it may cause chronic respiratory problems
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
28Si, 29Si, 30Si
Unstable Isotopes
22Si, 23Si, 24Si, 25Si, 26Si, 27Si, 31Si, 32Si, 33Si, 34Si, 35Si, 36Si, 37Si, 38Si, 39Si, 40Si, 41Si, 42Si, 43Si, 44Si