Gadolinij

64
Gd
Skupina
n/a
Perioda
6
Blok
f
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
64
64
93
General Properties
Vrstno število
64
Atomska teža
157,25
Mass Number
157
Kategorija
Lantanoidi
Barva
Silver
Radioactive
Ne
From gadolinite, a mineral named for Gadolin, a Finnish chemist
Kristalna struktura
Heksagonalna
Zgodovina
Gadolinium was first detected spectroscopically in 1880 by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac who separated its oxide.

He observed spectroscopic lines due to gadolinium in samples of gadolinite and in the separate mineral cerite.

The metal was isolated by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Razporeditev elektronov
[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Gd
Gadolinium has the highest neutron cross-section among any stable nuclides
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
7,895 g/cm3
Tališče
1585,15 K | 1312 °C | 2393,6 °F
Vrelišče
3546,15 K | 3273 °C | 5923,4 °F
Talilna toplota
10 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
305 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
0,236 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00052%
Abundance in Universe
2×10-7%
Ultrapure
Zasluge za slike: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure amorphous gadolinium
CAS Number
7440-54-2
PubChem CID Number
23982
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
180 pm
Kovalentni polmer
196 pm
Elektronegativnost
1,2 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
6,1501 eV
Atomic Volume
19,9 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
0,106 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
1, 2, 3
Applications
Gadolinium is used to make gadolinium yttrium garnets which have microwave applications.

It is also used in intravenous radiocontrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Gadolinium compounds are used for making green phosphors for color TV tubes, and in manufacturing compact discs.
Gadolinium is considered to be moderately toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd, 160Gd
Unstable Isotopes
134Gd, 135Gd, 136Gd, 137Gd, 138Gd, 139Gd, 140Gd, 141Gd, 142Gd, 143Gd, 144Gd, 145Gd, 146Gd, 147Gd, 148Gd, 149Gd, 150Gd, 151Gd, 152Gd, 153Gd, 159Gd, 161Gd, 162Gd, 163Gd, 164Gd, 165Gd, 166Gd, 167Gd, 168Gd, 169Gd