Rutenij

44
Ru
Skupina
8
Perioda
5
Blok
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
44
44
57
General Properties
Vrstno število
44
Atomska teža
101,07
Mass Number
101
Kategorija
Prehodne kovine
Barva
Silver
Radioactive
Ne
From the Latin word Ruthenia, Russia
Kristalna struktura
Heksagonalna
Zgodovina
Jędrzej Śniadecki isolated the element in 1807, but his work was not ratified.

Jöns Berzelius and Gottfried Osann nearly discovered ruthenium in 1827.

In 1844, Karl Ernst Claus confirmed that there was a new element and isolated ruthenium from the platinum residues of the rouble production while he was working in Kazan University, Kazan.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Razporeditev elektronov
[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Ru
Ruthenium is unaffected by air, water and acids
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
12,37 g/cm3
Tališče
2607,15 K | 2334 °C | 4233,2 °F
Vrelišče
4423,15 K | 4150 °C | 7502 °F
Talilna toplota
25,7 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
580 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
0,238 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
9,9×10-8%
Abundance in Universe
4×10-7%
Gas
Zasluge za slike: Wikimedia Commons (Periodictableru)
Gas phase grown crystals of ruthenium metal
CAS Number
7440-18-8
PubChem CID Number
23950
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
134 pm
Kovalentni polmer
146 pm
Elektronegativnost
2,2 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
7,3605 eV
Atomic Volume
8,3 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
1,17 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Applications
Ruthenium is used in platinum and palladium alloys to make wear-resistant electrical contacts.

Ruthenium dioxide and lead and bismuth ruthenates are used in thick-film chip resistors.

Fountain pen nibs are frequently tipped with alloys containing ruthenium.

Ruthenium is a versatile catalyst.
Ruthenium is a suspected carcinogen and its compounds strongly stain the skin
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
96Ru, 98Ru, 99Ru, 100Ru, 101Ru, 102Ru, 104Ru
Unstable Isotopes
87Ru, 88Ru, 89Ru, 90Ru, 91Ru, 92Ru, 93Ru, 94Ru, 95Ru, 97Ru, 103Ru, 105Ru, 106Ru, 107Ru, 108Ru, 109Ru, 110Ru, 111Ru, 112Ru, 113Ru, 114Ru, 115Ru, 116Ru, 117Ru, 118Ru, 119Ru, 120Ru