Berilij

4
Be
Skupina
2
Perioda
2
Blok
s
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
4
4
5
General Properties
Vrstno število
4
Atomska teža
9,012182
Mass Number
9
Kategorija
Zemljoalkalijske kovine
Barva
Slate Gray
Radioactive
Ne
From the Greek word beryllos, beryl
Kristalna struktura
Heksagonalna
Zgodovina
Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin discovered beryllium in the oxide form in both beryl and emeralds in 1798.

Friedrich Wöhler and Antoine Bussy independently isolated beryllium in 1828 by the chemical reaction of metallic potassium with beryllium chloride.

The first commercially-successful process for producing beryllium was developed in 1932 by Alfred Stock and Hans Goldschmidt.
Electrons per shell
2, 2
Razporeditev elektronov
[He] 2s2
Be
Emerald is a naturally occurring compound of beryllium
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
1,85 g/cm3
Tališče
1560,15 K | 1287 °C | 2348,6 °F
Vrelišče
2742,15 K | 2469 °C | 4476,2 °F
Talilna toplota
7,95 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
297 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
1,825 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00019%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-7%
Pure
Zasluge za slike: Images-of-elements
Pure beryllium bead, 2.5 grams
CAS Number
7440-41-7
PubChem CID Number
5460467
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
112 pm
Kovalentni polmer
96 pm
Elektronegativnost
1,57 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
9,3227 eV
Atomic Volume
4,9 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
2,01 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
1, 2
Applications
Beryllium is used in nuclear reactors as a reflector or moderator.

Beryllium metal is used for lightweight structural components in the defense and aerospace industries in high-speed aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles and satellites.

Unlike most metals, beryllium is virtually transparent to x-rays and hence it is used in radiation windows for x-ray tubes.
Beryllium and its salts are toxic and should be handled with the greatest of care
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
9Be
Unstable Isotopes
5Be, 6Be, 7Be, 8Be, 10Be, 11Be, 12Be, 13Be, 14Be, 15Be, 16Be