Kalcij

20
Ca
Skupina
2
Perioda
4
Blok
s
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
20
20
20
General Properties
Vrstno število
20
Atomska teža
40,078
Mass Number
40
Kategorija
Zemljoalkalijske kovine
Barva
Silver
Radioactive
Ne
From the Latin word calx, lime
Kristalna struktura
Ploskovno centrirana kubična
Zgodovina
Calcium was known as early as the first century when the Ancient Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide.

Calcium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 when he electrolyzed a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide.

Davy was trying to isolate calcium; when he heard that Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Pontin prepared calcium amalgam by electrolyzing lime in mercury, he tried it himself.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 8, 2
Razporeditev elektronov
[Ar] 4s2
Ca
The shell of an egg is made up of primarily calcium carbonate
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
1,54 g/cm3
Tališče
1115,15 K | 842 °C | 1547,6 °F
Vrelišče
1757,15 K | 1484 °C | 2703,2 °F
Talilna toplota
8,54 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
155 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
0,647 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
5%
Abundance in Universe
0,007%
Pure
Zasluge za slike: Wikimedia Commons (Matthias Zepper)
Pure calcium in a protective argon gas atmosphere
CAS Number
7440-70-2
PubChem CID Number
5460341
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
197 pm
Kovalentni polmer
176 pm
Elektronegativnost
1,00 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
6,1132 eV
Atomic Volume
29,9 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
2,01 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
1, 2
Applications
Calcium is used to remove oxygen, sulfur and carbon from alloys.

It is also used as an alloying agent used in the production of aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium alloys.

Calcium is used as a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals, such as uranium, zirconium, and thorium.

Calcium carbonate is used in manufacturing cement and mortar, lime and limestone.
Calcium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
40Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca, 46Ca
Unstable Isotopes
34Ca, 35Ca, 36Ca, 37Ca, 38Ca, 39Ca, 41Ca, 45Ca, 47Ca, 48Ca, 49Ca, 50Ca, 51Ca, 52Ca, 53Ca, 54Ca, 55Ca, 56Ca, 57Ca