Torij

90
Th
Skupina
n/a
Perioda
7
Blok
f
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
90
90
142
General Properties
Vrstno število
90
Atomska teža
232,03806
Mass Number
232
Kategorija
Aktinoidi
Barva
Silver
Radioactive
Da
Named after Thor, Scandinavian god of war
Kristalna struktura
Ploskovno centrirana kubična
Zgodovina
Thorium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1828, in Stockholm, Sweden.

Thorium was first observed to be radioactive in 1898, independently, by Polish-French physicist Marie Curie and German chemist Gerhard Carl Schmidt.

The crystal bar process was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925 to produce high-purity metallic thorium.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Razporeditev elektronov
[Rn] 6d2 7s2
Th
Thorium fuel research is continuing in several countries including the USA and India
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
11,7 g/cm3
Tališče
2115,15 K | 1842 °C | 3347,6 °F
Vrelišče
5061,15 K | 4788 °C | 8650,4 °F
Talilna toplota
16 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
530 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
0,113 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0006%
Abundance in Universe
4×10-8%
The
Zasluge za slike: Wikimedia Commons (NASA/ESA/JHU/R.Sankrit & W.Blair)
The Earth's thorium originated in the death throes of ancient stars
CAS Number
7440-29-1
PubChem CID Number
23960
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
179 pm
Kovalentni polmer
206 pm
Elektronegativnost
1,3 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
6,3067 eV
Atomic Volume
19,9 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
0,54 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
2, 3, 4
Applications
Thorium is used to coat tungsten filaments in light bulbs.

It is also used in its oxide form in gas tungsten arc welding to increase the high-temperature strength of tungsten electrodes and improve arc stability.

Thorium-magnesium alloys are used in the aerospace industry for aircraft engines.
Thorium is highly radioactive
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
232Th
Unstable Isotopes
209Th, 210Th, 211Th, 212Th, 213Th, 214Th, 215Th, 216Th, 217Th, 218Th, 219Th, 220Th, 221Th, 222Th, 223Th, 224Th, 225Th, 226Th, 227Th, 228Th, 229Th, 230Th, 231Th, 233Th, 234Th, 235Th, 236Th, 237Th, 238Th