Hafnij

72
Hf
Skupina
4
Perioda
6
Blok
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
72
72
106
General Properties
Vrstno število
72
Atomska teža
178,49
Mass Number
178
Kategorija
Prehodne kovine
Barva
Gray
Radioactive
Ne
From Hafinia, the Latin name for Copenhagen
Kristalna struktura
Heksagonalna
Zgodovina
In 1911, Georges Urbain claimed to have found the element in rare-earth residues which was shown later to be a mixture of already discovered lanthanides.

Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy found it by X-ray spectroscopic analysis in Norwegian zircon in 1922.

Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer were the first to prepare metallic hafnium by passing hafnium tetra-iodide vapor over a heated tungsten filament in 1924.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
Razporeditev elektronov
[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
Hf
In powdered form, hafnium is pyrophoric and can ignite spontaneously in air
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
13,31 g/cm3
Tališče
2506,15 K | 2233 °C | 4051,4 °F
Vrelišče
4876,15 K | 4603 °C | 8317,4 °F
Talilna toplota
25,5 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
630 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
0,144 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00033%
Abundance in Universe
7×10-8%
Electrolytic
Zasluge za slike: Images-of-elements
Electrolytic hafnium
CAS Number
7440-58-6
PubChem CID Number
23986
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
159 pm
Kovalentni polmer
175 pm
Elektronegativnost
1,3 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
6,8251 eV
Atomic Volume
13,6 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
0,23 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
2, 3, 4
Applications
Hafnium oxide-based compounds are being introduced into silicon-based chips to produce smaller, more energy efficient and performance packed processors.

Most of the hafnium produced is used in the production of control rods for nuclear reactors.

Hafnium is also used in photographic flash bulbs, light bulb filaments, and in electronic equipment as cathodes and capacitors.
Hafnium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
176Hf, 177Hf, 178Hf, 179Hf, 180Hf
Unstable Isotopes
153Hf, 154Hf, 155Hf, 156Hf, 157Hf, 158Hf, 159Hf, 160Hf, 161Hf, 162Hf, 163Hf, 164Hf, 165Hf, 166Hf, 167Hf, 168Hf, 169Hf, 170Hf, 171Hf, 172Hf, 173Hf, 174Hf, 175Hf, 181Hf, 182Hf, 183Hf, 184Hf, 185Hf, 186Hf, 187Hf, 188Hf