Tulij

69
Tm
Skupina
n/a
Perioda
6
Blok
f
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
69
69
100
General Properties
Vrstno število
69
Atomska teža
168,93421
Mass Number
169
Kategorija
Lantanoidi
Barva
Silver
Radioactive
Ne
Named after Thule, the earliest name for Scandinavia
Kristalna struktura
Heksagonalna
Zgodovina
Thulium was discovered by Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve in 1879 by looking for impurities in the oxides of other rare earth elements.

The first researcher to obtain nearly pure thulium was Charles James, a British expatriate working on a large scale at New Hampshire College in Durham.

High-purity thulium oxide was first offered commercially in the late 1950s.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
Razporeditev elektronov
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
Tm
Thulium ore occurs most commonly in China
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
9,321 g/cm3
Tališče
1818,15 K | 1545 °C | 2813 °F
Vrelišče
2223,15 K | 1950 °C | 3542 °F
Talilna toplota
16,8 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
250 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
0,16 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,000045%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-8%
Ultrapure
Zasluge za slike: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure crystalline thulium
CAS Number
7440-30-4
PubChem CID Number
23961
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
176 pm
Kovalentni polmer
190 pm
Elektronegativnost
1,25 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
6,1843 eV
Atomic Volume
18,1 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
0,168 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
2, 3
Applications
Thulium is used to dope yttrium aluminum garnets used in lasers.

It has also been used in high-temperature superconductors similarly to yttrium.

Thulium has use in ferrites, ceramic magnetic materials that are used in microwave equipment.

Thulium is used in euro banknotes for its blue fluorescence under UV light to defeat counterfeiters.
Thulium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
169Tm
Unstable Isotopes
145Tm, 146Tm, 147Tm, 148Tm, 149Tm, 150Tm, 151Tm, 152Tm, 153Tm, 154Tm, 155Tm, 156Tm, 157Tm, 158Tm, 159Tm, 160Tm, 161Tm, 162Tm, 163Tm, 164Tm, 165Tm, 166Tm, 167Tm, 168Tm, 170Tm, 171Tm, 172Tm, 173Tm, 174Tm, 175Tm, 176Tm, 177Tm, 178Tm, 179Tm