Holmij

67
Ho
Skupina
n/a
Perioda
6
Blok
f
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
67
67
98
General Properties
Vrstno število
67
Atomska teža
164,93032
Mass Number
165
Kategorija
Lantanoidi
Barva
Silver
Radioactive
Ne
From the Latin word Holmia meaning Stockholm
Kristalna struktura
Heksagonalna
Zgodovina
Holmium was discovered by Swiss chemists Marc Delafontaine and Jacques-Louis Soret in 1878.

They noticed the aberrant spectrographic absorption bands of the then-unknown element.

Later in 1878, Per Teodor Cleve independently discovered the element while he was working on erbia earth.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2
Razporeditev elektronov
[Xe] 4f11 6s2
Ho
Holmium has the highest magnetic strength of any naturally occurring element
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
8,795 g/cm3
Tališče
1734,15 K | 1461 °C | 2661,8 °F
Vrelišče
2993,15 K | 2720 °C | 4928 °F
Talilna toplota
17 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
265 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
0,165 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00012%
Abundance in Universe
5×10-8%
Ultrapure
Zasluge za slike: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure holmium
CAS Number
7440-60-0
PubChem CID Number
23988
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
176 pm
Kovalentni polmer
192 pm
Elektronegativnost
1,23 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
6,0215 eV
Atomic Volume
18,7 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
0,162 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
3
Applications
Holmium is used to create the strongest artificially generated magnetic fields, when placed within high-strength magnets as a magnetic pole piece.

It is one of the colorants used for cubic zirconia and glass, providing yellow or red coloring.

Holmium isotopes are good neutron absorbers and are used in nuclear reactor control rods.
Holmium is considered to be of low toxicity
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
165Ho
Unstable Isotopes
140Ho, 141Ho, 142Ho, 143Ho, 144Ho, 145Ho, 146Ho, 147Ho, 148Ho, 149Ho, 150Ho, 151Ho, 152Ho, 153Ho, 154Ho, 155Ho, 156Ho, 157Ho, 158Ho, 159Ho, 160Ho, 161Ho, 162Ho, 163Ho, 164Ho, 166Ho, 167Ho, 168Ho, 169Ho, 170Ho, 171Ho, 172Ho, 173Ho, 174Ho, 175Ho