Jod

53
I
Skupina
17
Perioda
5
Blok
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
53
53
74
General Properties
Vrstno število
53
Atomska teža
126,90447
Mass Number
127
Kategorija
Halogeni
Barva
Slate Gray
Radioactive
Ne
From the Greek word iodes, violet
Kristalna struktura
Osnovno centrirana ortorombska
Zgodovina
Iodine was discovered by French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811.

He treated the liquor obtained from the extraction of kelp, with sulfuric acid to produce a vapour with a violet color.

In 1812, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac demonstrated that iodine was an element and its chemical relationship to chlorine.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 7
Razporeditev elektronov
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
I
Kelp was the main source of natural iodine in the 18th and 19th centuries
Physical Properties
Faza snovi
Trdnina
Gostota
4,93 g/cm3
Tališče
386,85 K | 113,7 °C | 236,66 °F
Vrelišče
457,4 K | 184,25 °C | 363,65 °F
Talilna toplota
7,76 kJ/mol
Izparilna toplota
20,9 kJ/mol
Toplotna kapaciteta
0,214 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,000049%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-7%
Pure
Zasluge za slike: Images-of-elements
Pure crystalline iodine
CAS Number
7553-56-2
PubChem CID Number
807
Atomic Properties
Atomski polmer
140 pm
Kovalentni polmer
139 pm
Elektronegativnost
2,66 (Paulingova lestvica)
Ionization Potential
10,4513 eV
Atomic Volume
25,74 cm3/mol
Toplotna prevodnost
0,00449 W/cm·K
Oksidacijska stanja
-1, 1, 3, 5, 7
Applications
Iodine compounds are important in organic chemistry and very useful in medicine.

A solution containing potassium iodide and iodine in alcohol is used to disinfect external wounds.

Silver iodide is a major ingredient to traditional photographic film.

Iodine is added to table salt to prevent thyroid disease.
Elemental iodine is toxic if taken orally
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
127I
Unstable Isotopes
108I, 109I, 110I, 111I, 112I, 113I, 114I, 115I, 116I, 117I, 118I, 119I, 120I, 121I, 122I, 123I, 124I, 125I, 126I, 128I, 129I, 130I, 131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, 135I, 136I, 137I, 138I, 139I, 140I, 141I, 142I, 143I, 144I